Economic history of the United States | Wikipedia audio article | Wikipedia audio article



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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article:
Economic history of the United States | Wikipedia audio article

Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago.

Learning by listening is a great way to:
– increases imagination and understanding
– improves your listening skills
– improves your own spoken accent
– learn while on the move
– reduce eye strain

Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone.

You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at:

You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through:

“The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing.”
– Socrates

SUMMARY
=======
The economic history of the United States is about characteristics of and important developments in the U.S. economy from colonial times to the present. The emphasis is on economic performance and how it was affected by new technologies, especially those that improved productivity, which is the main cause of economic growth. Also covered are the change of size in economic sectors and the effects of legislation and government policy. Specialized business history is covered in American business history.

Russian Empire Cession of Alaska to the United States



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Panel “Alaska Treaty of Cession: Causes & Consequence”: Russian and American scholars and indigenous cultural workers discuss the reasons the Russian Empire cession of Alaska to the United States and its consequences. Professor Stephen Haycox (UAA) moderates the discussions. Russian Scholars: Andrei Grinev of St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, Russia; Sergei Kan of Dartmouth College, NH; Ilya Vinkovetsky of Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, BC; Andrei Znamenski of the University of Memphis, TN.
Alaska Native Experts: Joaqlin Estus (Tlingit), journalist/historian/archivist; Aaron Leggett (Dena’ina), museum curator and cultural advisor; David Russell-Jensen (Tsimshian/Iñupiaq), Tlinigit language student. Mount Edgecumbe High School, Sitka, AK. October 17, 2017

List 8 Tourist Attractions in Sitka, Alaska | Travel to United States



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Here, 8 Top Tourist Attractions in Sitka, US State..
There’s Alaska Raptor Center, Sitka National Historic Park/Totem Park, Fortress of the Bear, Sheldon Jackson Museum, Russian Bishop’s House, St. Michael’s Cathedral, Sitka Sound Science Center, Baranof Castle State Historical Site and more…

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History of the United States Republican Party | Wikipedia audio article



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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article:
History of the United States Republican Party

00:03:31 1 Ideological beginnings
00:07:27 2 Organizational beginnings
00:08:22 3 Establishing a national party and opposition
00:10:57 4 Civil War and Republican dominance: 1860–1896
00:12:46 4.1 Reconstruction: freedmen, carpetbaggers and scalawags
00:17:10 4.2 Gilded Age: 1877–1890
00:19:39 4.3 Ethnocultural politics: pietistic Republicans versus liturgical Democrats
00:22:04 5 Progressive Era: 1896–1932
00:28:04 6 Progressives and liberals
00:31:33 7 Political firsts for women and minorities
00:33:38 8 Fighting the New Deal coalition: 1932–1980
00:34:53 8.1 1933–1938
00:39:00 8.2 1939–1952
00:42:48 8.3 Dwight D. Eisenhower and Richard Nixon: 1952–1974
00:43:57 8.4 Citizens for Eisenhower
00:45:58 8.5 Richard Nixon and Barry Goldwater
00:50:55 8.6 Moderate Republicans of 1960–1980
00:54:34 8.7 Realignment: the South becomes Republican
00:55:59 8.7.1 1964–1972
00:58:15 8.7.1.1 Southern strategy
01:02:48 9 From Ronald Reagan to the Bush: 1980–2008
01:03:01 9.1 Reagan Revolution
01:06:37 9.2 Congressional ascendancy in 1994
01:09:52 9.3 Neoconservatives
01:11:00 9.4 Second Bush era
01:16:43 10 Challenging the Barack Obama administration: 2009–2016
01:19:39 10.1 2012–2016
01:24:10 11 2016 elections and presidency of Donald Trump
01:28:49 11.1 Demographic shifts since 2009
01:30:06 12 See also
01:30:33 13 Notes

Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago.

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“The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing.”
– Socrates

SUMMARY
=======
The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP (abbreviation for Grand Old Party), is one of the world’s oldest extant political parties. The party values reflect economic conservatism, classical conservatism (modern day American conservatism) and corporate liberty rights. It is the second oldest existing political party in the United States after its primary rival, the Democratic Party. The party emerged in 1854 to combat the Kansas–Nebraska Act, an act that dissolved the terms of the Missouri Compromise and allowed slave or free status to be decided in the territories by popular sovereignty. The early Republican Party had almost no presence in the Southern United States, but by 1858 it had enlisted former Whigs and former Free Soil Democrats to form majorities in nearly every Northern state.
With its election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860 and its success in guiding the Union to victory in the American Civil War and abolishing slavery, the party came to dominate the national political scene until 1932. The Republican Party at its beginning consisted of African-American and White Northern Protestants, businessmen, small business owners, professionals, factory workers, and farmers. It was pro-business, supporting banks, the gold standard, railroads and high tariffs to protect factory workers and grow industry faster. Under William McKinley and Theodore Roosevelt, it emphasized an expansive foreign policy.
The GOP lost its majorities during the Great Depression (1929–1940). Instead, the Democrats under Franklin D. Roosevelt formed a winning New Deal coalition, which was dominant from 1932 through 1964. That coalition collapsed in the mid-1960s, partly because of white Southern Democrats’ disaffection with the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Republicans won five of the six presidential elections from 1968 to 1988, with Ronald Reagan as the party’s iconic conservative hero. From 1992 to 2016, the Republican candidate has been elected to the White House in three of the seven presidential elections. Two of these (the 2000 and 2016 elections) saw George W. Bush and Donald Trump losing the popular vote, but winning the Electoral College. A similar situation in which Republicans won the Electoral College, but lost the popular vote were the 1876 and 1888 elections.
The Republican Party expanded its base throughout the South after 1968 (excepting 1976), largely due to its strength among socially conservative white evangelical Protestants and traditionalist Roman Catholics. As white Democrats in th …

Slavery in the United States | Wikipedia audio article



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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article:
Slavery in the United States

Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago.

Learning by listening is a great way to:
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– learn while on the move
– reduce eye strain

Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone.

You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at:

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“The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing.”
– Socrates

SUMMARY
=======
Slavery in the United States was the legal institution of human chattel enslavement, primarily of Africans and African Americans, that existed in the United States of America in the 18th and 19th centuries. Slavery had been practiced in British America from early colonial days, and was legal in all Thirteen Colonies at the time of the Declaration of Independence in 1776. It lasted in about half the states until 1865, when it was prohibited nationally by the Thirteenth Amendment. As an economic system, slavery was largely replaced by sharecropping.
By the time of the American Revolution (1775–1783), the status of slave had been institutionalized as a racial caste associated with African ancestry. When the United States Constitution was ratified (1789), a relatively small number of free people of color were among the voting citizens (male property owners). During and immediately following the Revolutionary War, abolitionist laws were passed in most Northern states and a movement developed to abolish slavery. Northern states depended on free labor and all had abolished slavery by 1805. The rapid expansion of the cotton industry in the Deep South after the invention of the cotton gin greatly increased demand for slave labor to pick cotton when it all ripened at once, and the Southern states continued as slave societies. Those states attempted to extend slavery into the new Western territories to keep their share of political power in the nation. Southern leaders also wanted to annex Cuba as a slave territory. The United States became polarized over the issue of slavery, split into slave and free states, in effect divided by the Mason–Dixon line which delineated (free) Pennsylvania from (slave) Maryland and Delaware.
Congress during the Jefferson administration prohibited the importation of slaves, effective 1808, although smuggling (illegal importing) via Spanish Florida was not unusual. Domestic slave trading, however, continued at a rapid pace, driven by labor demands from the development of cotton plantations in the Deep South. More than one million slaves were sold from the Upper South, which had a surplus of labor, and taken to the Deep South in a forced migration, splitting up many families. New communities of African-American culture were developed in the Deep South, and the total slave population in the South eventually reached 4 million before liberation.As the West was developed for settlement, the Southern state governments wanted to keep a balance between the number of slave and free states to maintain a political balance of power in Congress. The new territories acquired from Britain, France, and Mexico were the subject of major political compromises. By 1850, the newly rich cotton-growing South was threatening to secede from the Union, and tensions continued to rise. Many white Southern Christians, including church ministers, attempted to justify their support for slavery as modified by Christian paternalism. The largest denominations, the Baptist, Methodist, and Presbyterian churches, split over the slavery issue into regional organizations of the North and South. When Abraham Lincoln won the 1860 election on a platform of halting the expansion of slavery, seven states broke away to form the Confederacy. The first six states to secede held the greatest number of slaves in the South. Shortly after, the Civil War began when Confederate forces attacked the US Army’s Fort Sumter. Four additional slave states then seceded. Due to Union measures such as the Confiscation Acts and Emancipation Proclamation in 1863, the war effectively ended slavery, even before ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment in December 1865 formally ended the legal institution throughout the United States.

DFN:Memorial Service for Arizona Sen. John McCain PHOENIX, AZ, UNITED STATES 08.30.2018



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Memorial Service for Arizona Sen. John McCain
PHOENIX, AZ, UNITED STATES
08.30.2018
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Arizona Sen. John S. McCain’s memorial service is held at the North Phoenix Baptist Church in Phoenix, Aug. 30, 2018. McCain, who died Aug. 25 at age 81, was a senator for 31 years, a naval aviator, and was a prisoner of war during the Vietnam War.
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Southern United States | Wikipedia audio article



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The Southern United States, also known as the American South, Dixie, Dixieland, or simply the South, is a region of the United States of America. It is located between the Atlantic Ocean and the Western United States, with the Midwestern United States and Northeastern United States to its north and the Gulf of Mexico and Mexico to its south.
The South does not fully match the geographic south of the United States but is commonly defined as including the states that fought for the Confederate States of America in the American Civil War. The Deep South is fully located in the southeastern corner. Arizona and New Mexico, which are geographically in the southern part of the country, are rarely considered part, while West Virginia, which separated from Virginia in 1863, commonly is. Some scholars have proposed definitions of the South that do not coincide neatly with state boundaries. While the states of Delaware and Maryland, as well as the District of Columbia, permitted slavery prior to the start of the Civil War, they remained with the Union. Since the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s, they became more culturally, economically, and politically aligned with the industrial Northern states, and are often identified as part of the Mid-Atlantic or Northeast by many residents, businesses, public institutions, and private organizations,but the United States Census Bureau puts them in the South.
Usually, the South is defined as including the southeastern and south-central United States. The region is known for its culture and history, having developed its own customs, musical styles, and cuisines, which have distinguished it in some ways from the rest of the United States. The Southern ethnic heritage is diverse and includes strong European (mostly English, Scottish, Scotch-Irish, Irish, German, French, and Spanish American), African, and some Native American components.Some other aspects of the historical and cultural development of the South have been influenced by the institution of slave labor on plantations in the Deep South to an extent seen nowhere else in the United States; the presence of a large proportion of African Americans in the population; support for the doctrine of states’ rights, and the legacy of racial tension magnified by the Civil War and Reconstruction Era, as seen in thousands of lynchings (mostly from 1880 to 1930), the segregated system of separate schools and public facilities known as “Jim Crow laws”, that lasted until the 1960s, and the widespread use of poll taxes and other methods to frequently deny black people of the right to vote or hold office until the 1960s. Since the late 1960s, black people have held many offices in Southern states, especially in the coastal states of Virginia and South Carolina. Many black people have also been elected or appointed as mayors and police chiefs in the metropolises of Charlotte, Birmingham, Richmond, Columbia, Memphis, Houston, Atlanta, Jacksonville, and New Orleans, and serve in both the U.S. Congress and state legislatures.Historically, the South relied heavily on agriculture, and was highly rural until after 1945. It has since become more industrialized and urban and has attracted national and international migrants. The American South is now among the fastest-growing areas in the United States. Houston is the largest city in the Southern United States. Sociological research indicates that Southern collective identity stems from political, demographic, and cultural distinctiveness from the rest of the United States. The region contains almost all of the Bible Belt, an area of high Protestant church attendance (especially evangelical churches such as the Southern Baptist Convention) and predominantly conservative, religion-influenced politics. Indeed, studies have shown that Southerners are more conservative than non-Southerners in several areas, including religion, morality, international relations, and race relations. This is evident in both the region’s religious attendance figures and in the region’s usually strong support for the Republican Party in political elections since the 1960s, and especially since the 1990s.Apart from its climate, the living experience in the South increasingly resembles the rest of the nation. The arrival of millions of Northerners (especially in major metropolitan areas and coastal areas) and millions of Hispanics has meant the introduction of cultural values and social norms not rooted in Southern traditions. Observers conclude that collective identity and Southern distinctiveness are thus declining, particularly when defined against “an earlier South that was somehow more authentic, real, more unified and distinct”. The process has worked both ways, however, with aspects of Southern culture spreading throughout a greater portion of the rest of the United States in a process termed “Southernization”.

Southern United States | Wikipedia audio article



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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article:
Southern United States

Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written
language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago.

Learning by listening is a great way to:
– increases imagination and understanding
– improves your listening skills
– improves your own spoken accent
– learn while on the move
– reduce eye strain

Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through
audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio
while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using
a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone.

You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at:

In case you don’t find one that you were looking for, put a comment.
This video uses Google TTS en-US-Standard-D voice.

SUMMARY
=======
The Southern United States, also known as the American South, Dixie, Dixieland, or simply the South, is a region of the United States of America. It is located between the Atlantic Ocean and the Western United States, with the Midwestern United States and Northeastern United States to its north and the Gulf of Mexico and Mexico to its south.
The South does not fully match the geographic south of the United States but is commonly defined as including the states that fought for the Confederate States of America in the American Civil War. The Deep South is fully located in the southeastern corner. Arizona and New Mexico, which are geographically in the southern part of the country, are rarely considered part, while West Virginia, which separated from Virginia in 1863, commonly is. Some scholars have proposed definitions of the South that do not coincide neatly with state boundaries. While the states of Delaware and Maryland, as well as the District of Columbia, permitted slavery prior to the start of the Civil War, they remained with the Union. Since the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s, they became more culturally, economically, and politically aligned with the industrial Northern states, and are often identified as part of the Mid-Atlantic or Northeast by many residents, businesses, public institutions, and private organizations,but the United States Census Bureau puts them in the South.
Usually, the South is defined as including the southeastern and south-central United States. The region is known for its culture and history, having developed its own customs, musical styles, and cuisines, which have distinguished it in some ways from the rest of the United States. The Southern ethnic heritage is diverse and includes strong European (mostly English, Scottish, Scotch-Irish, Irish, German, French, and Spanish American), African, and some Native American components.Some other aspects of the historical and cultural development of the South have been influenced by the institution of slave labor on plantations in the Deep South to an extent seen nowhere else in the United States; the presence of a large proportion of African Americans in the population; support for the doctrine of states’ rights, and the legacy of racial tension magnified by the Civil War and Reconstruction Era, as seen in thousands of lynchings (mostly from 1880 to 1930), the segregated system of separate schools and public facilities known as “Jim Crow laws”, that lasted until the 1960s, and the widespread use of poll taxes and other methods to frequently deny black people of the right to vote or hold office until the 1960s. Since the late 1960s, black people have held many offices in Southern states, especially in the coastal states of Virginia and South Carolina. Many black people have also been elected or appointed as mayors and police chiefs in the metropolises of Charlotte, Birmingham, Richmond, Columbia, Memphis, Houston, Atlanta, Jacksonville, and New Orleans, and serve in both the U.S. Congress and state legislatures.Historically, the South relied heavily on agriculture, and was highly rural until after 1945. It has since become more industrialized and urban and has attracted national and international migrants. The American South is now among the fastest-growing areas in the United States. Houston is the largest city in the Southern United States. Sociological research indicates that Southern collective identity stems from political, demographic, and cultural distinctiveness from the rest of the United States. The region contains almost all of the Bible Belt, an area of high Protestant church attendance (especially evangelical churches such as the Southern Baptist Convention) and predominantly conservative, religion-influenced politics. Indeed, studies have shown that Southerners are more conservative than non-Southerners in several areas, including religion, morality, international relations, and race relations. This is …

Outline of the United States | Wikipedia audio article



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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article:
Outline of the United States

Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago.

Learning by listening is a great way to:
– increases imagination and understanding
– improves your listening skills
– improves your own spoken accent
– learn while on the move
– reduce eye strain

Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone.

You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at:

You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through:

“The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing.”
– Socrates

SUMMARY
=======
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the United States of America:

County (United States) | Wikipedia audio article



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In the United States of America, an administrative or political subdivision of a state is a county, which is a region having specific boundaries and usually some level of governmental authority. The term “county” is used in 48 U.S. states, while Louisiana and Alaska have functionally equivalent subdivisions called parishes and boroughs respectively.Most counties have subdivisions which may include municipalities and unincorporated areas. Others have no further divisions, or may serve as a consolidated city-county. Some municipalities are in multiple counties; New York City is uniquely partitioned into multiple counties, referred to at the city government level as boroughs.
The federal government of the United States uses the term “county equivalent” to describe non-county administrative or statistical areas that are comparable to counties. Louisiana parishes; the organized boroughs of Alaska; the District of Columbia; and the independent cities of the states of Virginia, Maryland, Missouri, and Nevada are equivalent to counties for administrative purposes. Alaska’s Unorganized Borough is divided into 10 census areas that are statistically equivalent to counties. As of 2018, there are currently 3,142 counties and county-equivalents in the 50 states and District of Columbia. If the 100 county equivalents in the U.S. territories are counted, then the total is 3,242 counties and county-equivalents in the United States.The number of counties per state ranges from the 3 counties of Delaware to the 254 counties of Texas.
Counties have significant governmental functions in all states except Rhode Island and Connecticut, where county governments have been abolished but the entities remain for administrative or statistical purposes. The Commonwealth of Massachusetts has removed most government functions from eight of its 14 counties.
The county with the largest population, Los Angeles County (10,170,292), and the county with the largest land area, San Bernardino County, border each other in Southern California (however four boroughs in Alaska are larger in area than San Bernardino).
Territories of the United States do not have counties (except for American Samoa, which does have them); instead, the United States Census Bureau divides them into county equivalents. While America Samoa does have its own counties, the U.S. Census Bureau counts American Samoa’s districts and atolls as county-equivalents.

County (United States) | Wikipedia audio article



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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article:
County (United States)

Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago.

Learning by listening is a great way to:
– increases imagination and understanding
– improves your listening skills
– improves your own spoken accent
– learn while on the move
– reduce eye strain

Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone.

You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at:

You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through:

“The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing.”
– Socrates

SUMMARY
=======
In the United States of America, an administrative or political subdivision of a state is a county, which is a region having specific boundaries and usually some level of governmental authority. The term “county” is used in 48 U.S. states, while Louisiana and Alaska have functionally equivalent subdivisions called parishes and boroughs respectively.Most counties have subdivisions which may include municipalities and unincorporated areas. Others have no further divisions, or may serve as a consolidated city-county. Some municipalities are in multiple counties; New York City is uniquely partitioned into multiple counties, referred to at the city government level as boroughs.
The federal government of the United States uses the term “county equivalent” to describe non-county administrative or statistical areas that are comparable to counties. Louisiana parishes; the organized boroughs of Alaska; the District of Columbia; and the independent cities of the states of Virginia, Maryland, Missouri, and Nevada are equivalent to counties for administrative purposes. Alaska’s Unorganized Borough is divided into 10 census areas that are statistically equivalent to counties. As of 2018, there are currently 3,142 counties and county-equivalents in the 50 states and District of Columbia. If the 100 county equivalents in the U.S. territories are counted, then the total is 3,242 counties and county-equivalents in the United States.The number of counties per state ranges from the 3 counties of Delaware to the 254 counties of Texas.
Counties have significant governmental functions in all states except Rhode Island and Connecticut, where county governments have been abolished but the entities remain for administrative or statistical purposes. The Commonwealth of Massachusetts has removed most government functions from eight of its 14 counties.
The county with the largest population, Los Angeles County (10,170,292), and the county with the largest land area, San Bernardino County, border each other in Southern California (however four boroughs in Alaska are larger in area than San Bernardino).
Territories of the United States do not have counties (except for American Samoa, which does have them); instead, the United States Census Bureau divides them into county equivalents. While America Samoa does have its own counties, the U.S. Census Bureau counts American Samoa’s districts and atolls as county-equivalents.

“Immigrants and Catholic Evangelization in the United States” by Archbishop Jose Gomez



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The Spanish missions to Florida date back to the sixteenth century. The first martyr to die on American soil, Father Juan de Padilla—who came to our country from Mexico and evangelized in Texas, California, and elsewhere—was killed in southern Kansas sometime in the early 1540s. The first Holy Mass was celebrated on the banks of the San Antonio River in 1691. Mission San Diego de Alcala, the first of California’s Franciscan missions, was founded in 1769. From their earliest settlement, these lands were Catholic, Christian. And these lands were, from the start, immigrant lands, meeting places of cultures. By reflecting on our evangelical and immigrant past as Catholics in America, what can we, the “Pilgrim Church” in America, learn about the future of Catholic evangelization in this country?

Catholic Church in the United States | Wikipedia audio article



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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article:
Catholic Church in the United States

Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago.

Learning by listening is a great way to:
– increases imagination and understanding
– improves your listening skills
– improves your own spoken accent
– learn while on the move
– reduce eye strain

Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone.

You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at:

You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through:

“The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing.”
– Socrates

SUMMARY
=======
The Catholic Church in the United States is part of the worldwide Catholic Church in communion with the Pope in Rome. With 20.8% of the United States population as of 2018, the Catholic Church is the country’s second largest single religious group after Protestantism, but the country’s largest religious denomination. The United States has the fourth largest Catholic population in the world after Brazil, Mexico and the Philippines, the largest Catholic minority population, and the largest English-speaking Catholic population. The central leadership body of the Catholic Church in the United States is the U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops.
The Catholic Church’s part of the history of the United States has its background in the European colonization of the Americas. The first Catholics arrived with the Spanish missions in the Americas with Christopher Columbus’ second voyage to the New World in 1493. In the 16th and 17th centuries, they established missions in what are now Florida, Georgia, New Mexico, Puerto Rico, Texas, and later in California. In addition to the Spanish, the French in the 17th century, via New France, began missionary work in Michigan, New York, Wisconsin. French colonization in the early 18th century saw missions established in Louisiana, St. Louis, New Orleans, Biloxi, Mobile, the Alabamas, Natchez, Yazoo, Natchitoches, Arkansas, Illinois. St. Augustine, Florida, founded in 1565, has the oldest continuous parish in the US. In 1789 the Archdiocese of Baltimore was the first diocese established in the newly formed United States. John Carroll, whose brother Daniel was one of five men to sign both the Articles of Confederation (1778) and the United States Constitution (1787), became the first American bishop. John McCloskey became the first American cardinal in 1875.
The number of Catholics grew from the early 19th century through immigration and the acquisition of the predominantly Catholic former possessions of France, Spain, and Mexico, followed in the mid-19th century by a rapid influx of Irish, German, Italian and Polish immigrants from Europe, making the Catholic Church the largest Christian denomination in the United States. This increase was met by widespread anti-Catholicism in the United States, prejudice and hostility, often resulting in riots and the burning of churches, convents, and seminaries. The Know Nothings, an anti-Catholic nativist movement, was founded in the mid 19th century in an attempt to restrict Catholic immigration, and was later followed by the Order of United American Mechanics, the Ku Klux Klan, the American Protective Association, and the Junior Order of United American Mechanics.
The fuller integration of Catholics into American society was hastened by the election of John F. Kennedy as President in 1960. Since then, the percentage of Americans who are Catholic has fallen slowly from about 25% to 22%, with increases in Hispanics, primarily Mexican Americans, and to a lesser degree, in more than six million former Protestants, who have balanced losses of self-identifying Catholics. In absolute numbers, Catholics have increased from 45 to 72 million. About 10% of the population as of 2010 are former Catholics or non-practicing, almost 30 million people. People have left for a number of reasons, which factors have also affected other denominations: loss of belief, disenchantment, disaffiliation for another religious group or for none, indifference. Other reasons for departure are the Church’s teaching on homosexuality, women’s role in the Church, abortion and birth control. The Catholic Church sexual abuse cases have had a negative effect as well, if not significant, especially in the northeast. The geographic center of US Catholicism is also shifting southward and westward; although compared with other religious groups, Catholics are fairly evenly dispersed throughout the country.As of 2018 (post- …