Irrigation | Wikipedia audio article



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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article:

00:01:13 1 History
00:06:01 1.1 China
00:07:16 1.2 Korea
00:08:00 1.3 North America
00:09:59 2 Present extent
00:11:25 3 Types of irrigation
00:11:53 3.1 Surface irrigation
00:13:34 3.2 Micro-irrigation
00:14:18 3.2.1 Drip irrigation
00:16:15 3.3 Sprinkler irrigation
00:18:35 3.3.1 Center pivot
00:20:12 3.3.2 Irrigation by lateral move (side roll, wheel line, wheelmove)sup[33]/supsup[34]/sup
00:22:22 3.3.3 Lawn sprinkler systems
00:25:04 3.3.4 Hose-end sprinklers
00:25:36 3.4 Subirrigation
00:27:28 3.4.1 Subsurface textile irrigation
00:28:26 4 Water sources
00:32:41 5 Efficiency
00:33:10 6 Technical challenges
00:35:40 7 Impact on society
00:38:17 8 See also

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Voice name: en-GB-Wavenet-B

“I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think.”
– Socrates

SUMMARY
=======
Irrigation is the application of controlled amounts of water to plants at needed intervals. Irrigation helps to grow agricultural crops, maintain landscapes, and revegetate disturbed soils in dry areas and during periods of less than average rainfall. Irrigation also has other uses in crop production, including frost protection, suppressing weed growth in grain fields and preventing soil consolidation. In contrast, agriculture that relies only on direct rainfall is referred to as rain-fed or dry land farming.
Irrigation systems are also used for cooling livestock, dust suppression, disposal of sewage, and in mining. Irrigation is often studied together with drainage, which is the removal of surface and sub-surface water from a given area.

Irrigation has been a central feature of agriculture for over 5,000 years and is the product of many cultures. Historically, it was the basis for economies and societies across the globe, from Asia to the Southwestern United States.

Janie WTTV-4-Popeye & Janie show-Indianapolis Eastside Voice companion article



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Janie from the “Popeye & Janie” show on WTTV Channel 4 is interviewed in her Indianapolis northside home by Al Hunter for the Eastside Voice newspaper. Christmas 2009.

History of Europe | Wikipedia audio article



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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article:
History of Europe

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“The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing.”
– Socrates

SUMMARY
=======
The history of Europe covers the peoples inhabiting Europe from prehistory to the present. During the Neolithic era and the time of the Indo-European migrations Europe saw migrations from east and southeast and the following important cultural and material exchange. The period known as classical antiquity began with the emergence of the city-states of ancient Greece. Later, the Roman Empire came to dominate the entire Mediterranean basin. The fall of the Roman Empire in AD 476 traditionally marks the start of the Middle Ages. Beginning in the 14th century a Renaissance of knowledge challenged traditional doctrines in science and theology. Simultaneously, the Protestant Reformation set up Protestant churches primarily in Germany, Scandinavia and England. After 1800, the Industrial Revolution brought prosperity to Britain and Western Europe. The main powers set up colonies in most of the Americas and Africa, and parts of Asia. In the 20th century, World War I and World War II resulted in massive numbers of deaths. The Cold War dominated European geo-politics from 1947 to 1989. Unification into a European Union moved forward after 1950, with some setbacks. Today, most countries west of Russia belong to the NATO military alliance, along with the United States and Canada.

Roaring Twenties | Wikipedia audio article



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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article:
Roaring Twenties

00:02:44 1 Economy
00:04:05 1.1 New products and technologies
00:04:19 1.1.1 Automobiles
00:06:13 1.1.2 Radio
00:07:02 1.1.3 Cinema
00:07:54 1.1.3.1 Sound movies
00:11:33 1.1.4 Aviation
00:12:27 1.1.5 Television
00:13:40 1.1.6 Medicine
00:14:40 1.2 New infrastructure
00:16:44 2 Society
00:16:53 2.1 Suffrage
00:17:36 2.2 Lost Generation
00:18:26 2.3 Social criticism
00:19:37 2.4 Art Deco
00:20:17 2.5 Expressionism and surrealism
00:20:47 2.6 Cinema
00:23:02 2.7 Harlem
00:24:04 2.8 Jazz Age
00:25:43 2.9 Dance
00:29:13 2.10 Fashion
00:29:21 2.10.1 Attire
00:31:23 2.11 Sexuality of women during the 1920s
00:33:23 2.12 The changing role of women
00:39:19 2.13 Liberalism in Europe
00:40:21 2.14 Homosexuality
00:43:18 2.15 Psychoanalysis
00:44:30 3 Culture
00:44:38 3.1 Immigration restrictions
00:45:24 3.2 Prohibition
00:47:02 3.2.1 Rise of the speakeasy
00:48:03 3.3 Literature
00:49:11 3.4 Solo flight across the Atlantic
00:50:04 3.5 Sports
00:51:09 3.5.1 Olympics
00:52:18 3.5.2 Balkans
00:53:28 3.5.3 United States
00:55:18 3.6 Organized Crime
00:56:36 4 Culture of Weimar Germany
00:58:22 5 American politics
01:01:31 5.1 Decline of labor unions
01:02:54 5.2 Progressivism in 1920s
01:04:51 5.2.1 Business progressivism
01:06:38 6 Canadian politics
01:07:33 7 End of the Roaring Twenties
01:07:42 7.1 Black Tuesday
01:08:22 7.2 Repeal of Prohibition
01:08:52 8 See also

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“The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing.”
– Socrates

SUMMARY
=======
The Roaring Twenties refers to the decade of the 1920s in Western society and Western culture. It was a period of economic prosperity with a distinctive cultural edge in the United States and Western Europe, particularly in major cities such as Berlin, Chicago, London, Los Angeles, New York City, Paris, and Sydney. In France, the decade was known as the “années folles” (‘crazy years’), emphasizing the era’s social, artistic and cultural dynamism. Jazz blossomed, the flapper redefined the modern look for British and American women, and Art Deco peaked. Not everything roared: in the wake of the hyper-emotional patriotism of World War I, Warren G. Harding “brought back normalcy” to the politics of the United States. This period saw the large-scale development and use of automobiles, telephones, motion pictures, radio, and electrical appliances. Aviation became a business. Nations saw rapid industrial and economic growth, accelerated consumer demand, and significant changes in lifestyle and culture. The media focused on celebrities, especially sports heroes and movie stars, as cities rooted for their home teams and filled the new palatial cinemas and gigantic sports stadiums. In most major democratic states, women won the right to vote.
The social and cultural features known as the Roaring Twenties began in leading metropolitan centers, then spread widely in the aftermath of World War I. The United States gained dominance in world finance. Thus, when Germany could no longer afford to pay World War I reparations to the United Kingdom, France and the other Allied powers, the United States came up with the Dawes Plan, named after banker, and later 30th Vice President, Charles G. Dawes. Wall Street invested heavily in Germany, which paid its reparations to countries that, in turn, used the dollars to pay off their war debts to Washington. By the middle of the decade, prosperity was widespread, with the second half of the decade known, especially in Germany, as the “Golden Twenties”.The spirit of the Roaring Twenties was marked by a general feeling of novelty associated with modernity and a break with tradition. Everything seemed to be feasible through modern technology. New technologies, especially automobiles, moving pictures, and radio, brought “modernity” to a large part of the population. Formal decorative frills were shed in favor of practicality in both daily life and architecture. At the same time, jazz and dancing rose in popularity, in opposition to the mood of World War I. As such, the period is al …

Witchcraft | Wikipedia audio article



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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article:

00:00:47 1 Concept
00:06:06 2 Etymology and definitions
00:08:22 3 Overview
00:08:31 3.1 Alleged practices
00:12:21 3.1.1 Spell casting
00:13:40 3.1.2 Necromancy (conjuring the dead)
00:14:34 3.1.3 Demonology
00:17:58 3.1.4 White witches
00:20:48 3.2 Accusations of witchcraft
00:23:41 3.2.1 Violence related to accusations
00:25:41 3.3 Contemporary witchcraft
00:27:00 3.3.1 Wicca
00:29:45 3.3.1.1 Witchcraft, Feminism, and Media
00:31:22 3.3.2 Stregheria
00:32:52 3.3.3 Traditional witchcraft
00:34:54 3.4 Contemporary witchcraft, Satanism and Luciferianism
00:41:12 4 Historical and religious perspectives
00:41:24 4.1 Near East beliefs
00:42:47 4.2 Abrahamic religions
00:42:57 4.2.1 Hebrew Bible
00:47:06 4.2.2 New Testament
00:47:50 4.2.3 Judaism
00:50:21 4.2.4 Islam
00:56:18 5 By region
00:56:28 5.1 Africa
01:00:07 5.1.1 Cameroon
01:00:37 5.1.2 Central Africa
01:02:07 5.1.3 Democratic Republic of the Congo
01:04:19 5.1.4 Ghana
01:06:06 5.1.5 Kenya
01:06:27 5.1.6 Malawi
01:07:40 5.1.7 Nigeria
01:09:31 5.1.8 Sierra Leone
01:11:16 5.1.9 Tanzania
01:12:03 5.2 Americas
01:12:12 5.2.1 Caribbean
01:13:38 5.2.2 Colonial North America
01:18:49 5.2.3 Diné / Navajo
01:21:05 5.2.4 North America (Mexico)
01:23:03 5.2.5 South America
01:23:50 5.3 Asia
01:23:59 5.3.1 India
01:24:59 5.3.2 Nepal
01:26:05 5.3.3 Japan
01:30:40 5.3.4 Philippines
01:32:30 5.3.5 Saudi Arabia
01:34:06 5.3.6 Syria and Iraq
01:34:47 5.3.7 Tocharians
01:35:24 5.4 Europe
01:42:13 5.4.1 United Kingdom
01:47:05 5.4.1.1 21st century
01:50:37 5.4.2 Italy
01:53:12 5.4.3 Spain
01:54:10 5.5 Oceania
01:54:19 5.5.1 Cook Islands
01:57:14 5.5.2 Papua New Guinea
01:57:48 5.6 Russia
01:58:16 5.6.1 Spells
02:02:37 5.6.2 Societal view of witchcraft
02:05:28 5.6.3 Witchcraft trials
02:11:47 6 Witches in art

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Speaking Rate: 0.7095989163512856
Voice name: en-GB-Wavenet-D

“I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think.”
– Socrates

SUMMARY
=======
Witchcraft or witchery broadly means the practice of and belief in magical skills and abilities exercised by solitary practitioners and groups. Witchcraft is a broad term that varies culturally and societally, and thus can be difficult to define with precision, and cross-cultural assumptions about the meaning or significance of the term should be applied with caution. Witchcraft often occupies a religious divinatory or medicinal role, and is often present within societies and groups whose cultural framework includes a magical world view.

Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Wikipedia audio article



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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article:

00:00:54 1 History
00:04:59 1.1 College reorganizations
00:06:39 1.2 Post-World War II
00:09:28 1.3 Vietnam War era
00:11:48 1.4 Twenty-first century
00:13:23 1.4.1 2007 shooting
00:14:14 1.5 List of presidents
00:14:23 2 Academics
00:15:09 2.1 Admissions
00:17:47 3 Rankings
00:24:50 3.1 Student affairs rankings
00:25:08 4 Research
00:26:41 4.1 Research institutes
00:27:23 4.2 Fralin Life Science Institute
00:27:56 4.3 Biocomplexity Institute of Virginia Tech
00:28:36 4.4 Virginia Tech Transportation Institute (VTTI)
00:30:50 4.5 Institute for Creativity, Arts and Technology (ICAT)
00:31:06 4.6 Institute for Critical Technology and Applied Science (ICTAS)
00:32:01 4.7 Institute for Society, Culture, and Environment (ISCE)
00:32:26 4.8 Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute
00:32:52 4.9 Virginia Tech Research Center – Arlington (VTRC-A)
00:33:24 4.10 Other areas of research
00:38:28 5 Campus
00:41:42 5.1 Extended campuses
00:42:17 5.1.1 Northern Virginia Center (National Capital Region)
00:44:11 5.2 International campuses
00:44:20 5.2.1 Caribbean Center for Education and Research (CCER)
00:45:22 5.2.2 Center for European Studies and Architecture (CESA)
00:46:01 5.3 Agricultural Research and Extension Centers
00:46:43 5.4 Power plant
00:48:04 5.5 Future of Campus
00:48:50 6 Student life
00:48:59 6.1 Residential life
00:49:44 6.1.1 Campus residence halls
00:49:53 6.2 Corps of Cadets
00:50:25 6.3 Cadet Residential life
00:51:19 6.4 Dining
00:52:16 6.5 Greek Life
00:53:08 6.6 Organizations on Campus
00:53:42 7 Athletics
00:57:09 7.1 Baseball
00:57:43 7.2 Basketball (men’s)
01:00:27 7.3 Basketball (women’s)
01:01:14 7.4 Football
01:03:16 7.5 Soccer
01:04:48 7.6 Softball
01:05:29 8 Alumni
01:06:06 9 See also

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Speaking Rate: 0.9069451129556707
Voice name: en-US-Wavenet-D

“I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think.”
– Socrates

SUMMARY
=======
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, commonly known as Virginia Tech and by the initialisms VT and VPI, is a public, land-grant, research university with its main campus in Blacksburg, Virginia. It also has educational facilities in six regions statewide and a study-abroad site in Riva San Vitale, Switzerland. Through its Corps of Cadets ROTC program, Virginia Tech is also designated as one of six senior military colleges in the United States.Virginia Tech offers 280 undergraduate and graduate degree programs to some 34,400 students and manages a research portfolio of $522 million, the largest of any university in Virginia. Virginia Tech is the state’s second-largest university by enrollment.

Chattanooga, Tennessee | Wikipedia audio article



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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article:
Chattanooga, Tennessee

00:02:02 1 History
00:09:07 2 Geography
00:11:00 2.1 Cityscape
00:13:45 2.1.1 Downtown revitalization
00:15:45 2.2 Neighborhoods
00:16:20 2.3 Important suburbs
00:16:28 2.4 Climate
00:18:28 3 Demographics
00:21:50 3.1 Religion
00:22:44 4 Economy
00:27:06 4.1 Utilities
00:28:55 4.2 EPB’s gigabit public fiber optic network
00:31:05 4.3 Banking
00:32:54 5 Culture and tourism
00:33:03 5.1 Museums
00:33:46 5.2 Arts and literature
00:34:36 5.3 Attractions
00:37:35 5.4 Festivals and events
00:39:43 6 Sports
00:40:08 6.1 Organized sports
00:42:49 6.2 Outdoor sports
00:47:49 7 Media and communications
00:48:11 7.1 Newspapers
00:50:18 7.2 Online media
00:51:04 7.3 Radio
00:51:17 7.3.1 AM
00:51:25 7.3.2 FM
00:51:33 7.4 Television
00:52:58 8 Law and government
00:56:36 9 Education
00:56:45 9.1 Primary and secondary education
00:58:02 9.2 Higher education
00:59:30 9.3 Public library
01:00:36 10 Health care
01:02:05 11 Transportation
01:02:33 11.1 Principal highways
01:02:56 11.2 Major surface routes
01:03:47 11.3 Tunnels
01:04:28 11.4 Public transit
01:04:54 11.5 Bicycle-sharing system
01:05:15 11.6 Railroad lines
01:08:30 11.7 Bridges
01:10:43 11.8 Air travel
01:11:07 12 Notable people
01:11:17 13 Pop culture
01:11:44 13.1 Novels
01:12:06 13.2 Documentaries
01:12:49 13.3 Films
01:13:41 13.4 Sporting and entertainment events
01:14:12 13.5 TV shows
01:14:37 13.6 Miscellaneous film and TV productions
01:15:29 14 Sister/Twinning cities
01:17:02 15 See also

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“The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing.”
– Socrates

SUMMARY
=======
Chattanooga is a city located along the Tennessee River near the southeastern corner of the U.S. state of Tennessee. With an estimated population of 179,139 in 2017, it is the fourth-largest city in Tennessee and one of the two principal cities of East Tennessee, along with Knoxville. Served by multiple railroads and Interstate highways, Chattanooga is a transit hub. Chattanooga lies 118 miles (190 km) northwest of Atlanta, Georgia, 112 miles (180 km) southwest of Knoxville, Tennessee, 134 miles (216 km) southeast of Nashville, Tennessee, 102 miles (164 km) northeast of Huntsville, Alabama, and 147 miles (237 km) northeast of Birmingham, Alabama.
The city, with a downtown elevation of approximately 680 feet (210 m), lies at the transition between the ridge-and-valley portion of the Appalachian Mountains and the Cumberland Plateau. Surrounded by mountains and ridges, the official nickname for Chattanooga is “Scenic City”, reinforced by the city’s reputation for outdoor activities. Unofficial nicknames include “River City”, “Chatt”, “Nooga”, “Chattown”, and “Gig City”, referencing Chattanooga’s claims that it has the fastest internet service in the Western Hemisphere.Chattanooga is internationally known for the 1941 song “Chattanooga Choo Choo” by Glenn Miller and his orchestra. Chattanooga is home to the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga (UTC) and Chattanooga State Community College.
The city has its own typeface, Chatype, which was launched in August 2012. According to the Nooga.com website, this marks the first time that an American city has its own custom-made typeface and also the first time a crowd-funded custom-made typeface has been used for any municipality in the world.

Bracero Program | Wikipedia audio article



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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article:

00:00:52 1 Introduction
00:02:52 2 1951 negotiations to termination
00:08:38 2.1 Notable strikes
00:11:31 2.2 Strike of 1943
00:13:48 2.3 Reasons for discontent amongst braceros
00:17:08 2.4 Reasons for bracero strikes in the Northwest
00:20:58 3 Aftermath
00:21:45 4 Significance and effects
00:25:57 5 In popular culture
00:27:10 6 Exhibitions and collections
00:28:23 7 See also
00:28:36 8 Footnotes
00:28:45 9 Bibliography
00:31:21 10 External links

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Speaking Rate: 0.8929778254115097
Voice name: en-AU-Wavenet-C

“I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think.”
– Socrates

SUMMARY
=======
The Bracero Program (from the Spanish term bracero, meaning “manual laborer” or “one who works using his arms”) was a series of laws and diplomatic agreements, initiated on August 4, 1942, when the United States signed the Mexican Farm Labor Agreement with Mexico. The agreement guaranteed decent living conditions (sanitation, adequate shelter and food) and a minimum wage of 30 cents an hour; it also allowed the importation of contract laborers from Guam as a temporary measure during the early phases of World War II.The agreement was extended with the Migrant Labor Agreement of 1951, enacted as an amendment to the Agricultural Act of 1949 (Public Law 78) by Congress, which set the official parameters for the bracero program until its termination in 1964.

Strom Thurmond | Wikipedia audio article



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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article:
Strom Thurmond

00:03:20 1 Early life and education
00:05:06 2 Early career
00:07:18 2.1 World War II
00:08:14 2.2 Governor of South Carolina
00:09:38 2.3 Run for President
00:13:35 2.4 Early runs for Senate
00:15:07 3 Elected to the Senate and 1950s
00:19:22 3.1 iBrown v. Board of Education/i
00:20:31 4 1960s
00:22:23 4.1 Kennedy administration
00:28:14 4.2 Johnson administration
00:33:17 4.2.1 1964 presidential election and party switch
00:34:20 4.2.2 Supreme Court
00:38:00 4.2.3 1968 presidential election
00:40:58 4.2.4 1966 re-election campaign
00:41:43 5 1970s
00:46:31 5.1 Domestic policy
01:00:24 5.2 Foreign policy
01:06:23 5.3 Nixon resignation
01:08:40 5.4 Carter nominees
01:09:49 5.5 1978 re-election campaign
01:11:26 5.6 1980 presidential election
01:14:41 5.7 Post-1970 views regarding race
01:16:22 6 1980s
01:20:53 6.1 Domestic policy
01:29:50 6.2 Anti-crime and drug policies
01:34:08 6.3 Reagan nominees
01:38:13 6.4 Foreign policy
01:42:02 6.5 1984 re-election campaign
01:43:38 6.6 Antonin Scalia nomination
01:44:58 7 1990s and 2000s
01:48:18 7.1 1990 re-election campaign
01:48:59 7.2 Clarence Thomas nomination
01:50:18 7.3 Chairman of the Senate Armed Services Committee
01:53:12 7.4 1996 re-election campaign
01:54:05 7.5 Last term
01:57:44 8 Personal life
01:57:53 8.1 Marriages and children
02:00:26 8.2 First daughter
02:02:30 9 Death
02:03:10 10 Electoral history
02:03:20 11 Legacy
02:06:36 12 See also

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“The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing.”
– Socrates

SUMMARY
=======
James Strom Thurmond Sr. (December 5, 1902 – June 26, 2003) was an American politician who served for 48 years as a United States Senator from South Carolina. He ran for president in 1948 as the States Rights Democratic Party candidate, receiving 2.4% of the popular vote and 39 electoral votes. Thurmond represented South Carolina in the United States Senate from 1954 until 2003, at first as a Southern Democrat and, after 1964, as a Republican.
A magnet for controversy during his nearly half-century Senate career, Thurmond switched parties because of his support for the conservatism of the Republican presidential candidate Senator Barry Goldwater. In the months before switching, he had “been critical of the Democratic Administration for … enactment of the Civil Rights Law”, while Goldwater “boasted of his opposition to the Civil Rights Act, and made it part of his platform.” Thurmond left office as the only member of either chamber of Congress to reach the age of 100 while still in office, and as the oldest-serving and longest-serving senator in U.S. history (although he was later surpassed in the latter by Robert Byrd and Daniel Inouye). Thurmond holds the record as the longest-serving member of Congress to serve exclusively in the Senate. He is also the longest-serving Republican member of Congress in U.S. history. At 14 years, he was also the longest-serving Dean of the United States Senate in U.S. history.
In opposition to the Civil Rights Act of 1957, he conducted the longest speaking filibuster ever by a lone senator, at 24 hours and 18 minutes in length, nonstop. In the 1960s, he opposed the civil rights legislation of 1964 and 1965 to end segregation and enforce the constitutional rights of African-American citizens, including basic suffrage. Despite being a pro-segregation Dixiecrat, he insisted he was not a racist, but was opposed to excessive federal authority, which he attributed to Communist agitators.Starting in the 1970s, he moderated his position on race, but continued to defend his early segregationist campaigns on the basis of states’ rights in the context of Southern society at the time. He never fully renounced his earlier positions.Six months after Thurmond died at the age of 100 in 2003, his mixed-race, then 78-year-old daughter Essie Mae Washington-Williams (1925–2013) revealed he was her father. Her mother Carrie Butler (1909–1948) had been working as his family’s maid, and was either 15 or 16 years old when a 22-year-old Thurmond …

Bracero program | Wikipedia audio article



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00:01:11 1 Introduction
00:03:51 2 1951 negotiations to termination
00:11:42 2.1 Notable strikes
00:15:34 2.2 Strike of 1943
00:18:38 2.3 Reasons for discontent amongst braceros
00:23:05 2.4 Reasons for bracero strikes in the Northwest
00:28:16 3 Aftermath
00:29:19 4 Significance and effects
00:35:01 5 In popular culture
00:36:36 6 Exhibitions and collections
00:38:12 7 See also
00:38:27 8 Footnotes
00:38:36 9 Bibliography
00:42:04 10 External links

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“I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think.”
– Socrates

SUMMARY
=======
The Bracero Program (from the Spanish term bracero, meaning “manual laborer” or “one who works using his arms”) was a series of laws and diplomatic agreements, initiated on August 4, 1942, when the United States signed the Mexican Farm Labor Agreement with Mexico. The agreement guaranteed decent living conditions (sanitation, adequate shelter and food) and a minimum wage of 30 cents an hour; it also allowed the importation of contract laborers from Guam as a temporary measure during the early phases of World War II.The agreement was extended with the Migrant Labor Agreement of 1951, enacted as an amendment to the Agricultural Act of 1949 (Public Law 78) by Congress, which set the official parameters for the bracero program until its termination in 1964.

American civil religion | Wikipedia audio article



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American civil religion

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“The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing.”
– Socrates

SUMMARY
=======
American civil religion is a sociological theory that a nonsectarian quasi-religious faith exists within the United States with sacred symbols drawn from national history. Scholars have portrayed it as a cohesive force, a common set of values that foster social and cultural integration. The very heavy emphasis on nondenominational religious themes is quite distinctively American and the theory is designed to explain this. The concept goes back to the 19th century, but in current form, the theory was developed by sociologist Robert Bellah in 1967 in his article, “Civil Religion in America”. The topic soon became the major focus at religious sociology conferences and numerous articles and books were written on the subject. The debate reached its peak with the American Bicentennial celebration in 1976. There is a viewpoint that some Americans have come to see the document of the United States Constitution, along with the Declaration of Independence and the Bill of Rights as cornerstones of a type of civic or civil religion or political religion. Political sociologist Anthony Squiers argues that these texts act as the sacred writ of the American civil religion because they are used as authoritative symbols in what he calls the politics of the sacred. The Politics of the Sacred, according to Squiers are “the attempt to define and dictate what is in accord with the civil religious sacred and what is not. It is a battle to define what can and cannot be and what should and should not be tolerated and accepted in the community, based on its relation to that which is sacred for that community.”According to Bellah, Americans embrace a common “civil religion” with certain fundamental beliefs, values, holidays, and rituals, parallel to, or independent of, their chosen religion. Presidents have often served in central roles in civil religion, and the nation provides quasi-religious honors to its martyrs—such as Abraham Lincoln and the soldiers killed in the American Civil War. Historians have noted presidential level use of civil religion rhetoric in profoundly moving episodes such as World War II, the Civil Rights Movement, and the September 11th attacks.In a survey of more than fifty years of American civil religion scholarship, Squiers identifies fourteen principal tenets of the American civil religion:

Filial piety
Reference to certain sacred texts and symbols of the ACR (The Constitution, The Declaration of independence, the flag, etc.)
The sanctity of American institutions
The belief in God or a deity
The idea that rights are divinely given
The notion that freedom comes from God through government
Governmental authority comes from God or a higher transcendent authority
The conviction that God can be known through the American experience
God is the supreme judge
God is sovereign
America’s prosperity results from God’s providence
America is a ‘city on a hill’ or a beacon of hope and righteousness
The principle of sacrificial death and rebirth
America serves a higher purpose than self-interestsIn an examination of over fifty years of political discourse, Squiers finds that Filial piety, Reference to certain sacred texts and symbols of the ACR, The belief in God or a deity, America is a ‘city on a hill’ or a beacon of hope and righteousness, and America serves a higher purpose than self-interests are the most frequently referenced. He further found that there are no statistically significant differences in the amount of American civil religious language between Democrats and Republicans, incumbents and non-incumbents nor Presidential and Vice-Presidential candidates.This belief system has historically been used to reject nonconformist ideas and groups. Theorists such as Bellah hold that American civil religion can perform the religious functions of integration, legitimation, and prophecy, while other theorists, such as Richard Fenn, disagree.

Mobile, Alabama | Wikipedia audio article



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Mobile, Alabama

00:02:28 1 Etymology
00:03:08 2 History
00:03:17 2.1 Colonial
00:08:00 2.2 19th century
00:13:19 2.3 20th century
00:21:49 3 Geography and climate
00:21:59 3.1 Geography
00:22:47 3.2 Neighborhoods
00:23:11 3.3 Climate
00:25:27 3.3.1 Christmas Day tornado
00:26:58 4 Culture
00:28:02 4.1 Carnival and Mardi Gras
00:31:01 4.2 Archives and libraries
00:32:45 4.3 Arts and entertainment
00:36:44 5 Tourism
00:36:53 5.1 Museums
00:39:17 5.2 Parks and other attractions
00:41:35 5.3 Historic architecture
00:45:06 6 Demographics
00:47:35 7 Government
00:50:00 8 Education
00:50:08 8.1 Public facilities
00:50:56 8.2 Private facilities
00:52:20 8.3 Tertiary
00:52:29 8.4 Primary and secondary
00:52:54 8.4.1 Undergraduate and postgraduate
00:54:46 8.4.2 Community college
00:55:09 8.4.3 Vocational
00:55:39 9 Healthcare
00:57:48 10 Economy
00:58:49 10.1 Major industry
00:58:57 10.1.1 Port of Mobile
00:59:37 10.1.2 Shipyards
01:00:44 10.1.3 Mobile Aeroplex at Brookley
01:03:01 10.1.4 ThyssenKrupp
01:03:52 10.2 Top employers
01:04:09 10.3 Unemployment rate
01:04:37 11 Transportation
01:04:47 11.1 Air
01:05:25 11.2 Rail
01:06:27 11.3 Roadways
01:08:14 11.4 Water
01:10:36 12 Media
01:10:44 12.1 Print
01:11:24 12.2 Television
01:12:34 12.3 Radio
01:13:33 13 Sports
01:13:42 13.1 Football
01:14:55 13.2 Baseball
01:15:33 13.3 Basketball
01:15:52 13.4 Other sports and facilities
01:16:55 14 Sister cities
01:17:09 15 Tunnels
01:17:28 16 See also

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“The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing.”
– Socrates

SUMMARY
=======
Mobile ( moh-BEEL; French pronunciation: ​[mɔ.bil]) is the county seat of Mobile County, Alabama, United States. The population within the city limits was 195,111 as of the 2010 United States Census, making it the third most populous city in Alabama, the most populous in Mobile County, and the largest municipality on the Gulf Coast between New Orleans, Louisiana, and St. Petersburg, Florida.
Alabama’s only saltwater port, Mobile is located on the Mobile River at the head of the Mobile Bay and the north-central Gulf Coast. The Port of Mobile has always played a key role in the economic health of the city, beginning with the settlement as an important trading center between the French colonists and Native Americans, down to its current role as the 12th-largest port in the United States.Mobile is the principal municipality of the Mobile metropolitan area. This region of 412,992 residents is composed solely of Mobile County; it is the third-largest metropolitan statistical area in the state. Mobile is the largest city in the Mobile-Daphne−Fairhope CSA, with a total population of 604,726, the second largest in the state. As of 2011, the population within a 60-mile (100 km) radius of Mobile is 1,262,907.Mobile was established in 1702 by the French as the first capital of colonial La Louisiane (New France). During its first 100 years, Mobile was a colony of France, then Britain, and lastly Spain. Mobile first became a part of the United States of America in 1813, with the annexation by President James Madison of West Florida from Spain. In 1861, Alabama joined the Confederate States of America, which surrendered in 1865.Considered one of the Gulf Coast’s cultural centers, Mobile has several art museums, a symphony orchestra, professional opera, professional ballet company, and a large concentration of historic architecture. Mobile is known for having the oldest organized Carnival or Mardi Gras celebrations in the United States. Its French Catholic colonial settlers celebrated this festival from the first decade of the 18th century. Beginning in 1830, Mobile was host to the first formally organized Carnival mystic society to celebrate with a parade in the United States. (In New Orleans such a group is called a krewe.)

Washington Monument | Wikipedia audio article



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Washington Monument

00:04:40 1 History
00:04:49 1.1 Rationale
00:05:58 1.2 Proposals for a memorial
00:08:10 1.3 Design
00:12:18 1.4 Construction
00:13:30 1.4.1 Excavation and initial construction
00:17:14 1.4.2 Donations run out
00:19:01 1.4.3 Post–Civil War
00:20:25 1.4.4 Resumption
00:22:21 1.5 Dedication
00:23:55 1.6 Later history
00:28:29 1.6.1 2011 earthquake damage
00:33:46 2 Components
00:33:54 2.1 Cornerstone
00:37:03 2.2 Memorial stones
00:41:13 2.3 Aluminum apex
00:45:42 2.4 Lightning protection
00:48:09 2.5 Walls
00:52:56 2.6 Pyramidion
00:58:34 2.7 Foundation
01:02:40 2.8 Stairs and elevator
01:07:37 2.9 Flags
01:09:06 2.10 Vesica piscis
01:09:34 2.11 Miscellaneous details
01:12:05 2.12 Security
01:14:39 3 Transit
01:14:52 4 See also

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“The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing.”
– Socrates

SUMMARY
=======
The Washington Monument is an obelisk on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., built to commemorate George Washington, once commander-in-chief of the Continental Army and the first President of the United States. Located almost due east of the Reflecting Pool and the Lincoln Memorial, the monument, made of marble, granite, and bluestone gneiss, is both the world’s tallest predominately stone structure and the world’s tallest obelisk, standing 554 feet 7 11⁄32 inches (169.046 m) tall according to the National Geodetic Survey (measured 2013–14) or 555 feet 5 1⁄8 inches (169.294 m) tall according to the National Park Service (measured 1884). It is the tallest monumental column in the world if all are measured above their pedestrian entrances. It was the tallest structure in the world from 1884 to 1889, when it was overtaken by the Eiffel Tower in Paris.
Construction of the monument began in 1848, and was halted from 1854 to 1877 due to a lack of funds, a struggle for control over the Washington National Monument Society, and the intervention of the American Civil War. Although the stone structure was completed in 1884, internal ironwork, the knoll, and other finishing touches were not completed until 1888. A difference in shading of the marble, visible approximately 150 feet (46 m) or 27% up, shows where construction was halted and later resumed with marble from a different source. The original design was by Robert Mills, but he did not include his proposed colonnade due to a lack of funds, proceeding only with a bare obelisk. The cornerstone was laid on July 4, 1848; the first stone was laid atop the unfinished stump on August 7, 1880; the capstone was set on December 6, 1884; the completed monument was dedicated on February 21, 1885; and officially opened October 9, 1888.
The Washington Monument is a hollow Egyptian style stone obelisk with a 500-foot (152.4 m) tall column and a 55-foot (16.8 m) tall pyramidion. Its walls are 15 feet (4.6 m) thick at its base and 1 1⁄2 feet (0.46 m) thick at their top. The marble pyramidion has thin walls only 7 inches (18 cm) thick supported by six arches, two between opposite walls that cross at the center of the pyramidion and four smaller corner arches. The top of the pyramidion is a large marble capstone with a small aluminum pyramid at its apex with inscriptions on all four sides. The lowest 150 feet (45.7 m) of the walls, constructed during the first phase 1848–1854, are composed of a pile of bluestone gneiss rubble stones (not finished stones) held together by a large amount of mortar with a facade of semi-finished marble stones about 1 1⁄4 feet (0.4 m) thick. The upper 350 feet (106.7 m) of the walls, constructed during the second phase 1880–1884, are composed of finished marble surface stones, half of which project into the walls, partially backed by finished granite stones.The interior is occupied by iron stairs that spiral up the walls, with an elevator in the center, each supported by four iron columns, which do not support the stone structure. The stairs contain fifty sections, most on the north and south walls, with many long landings stretching between them along t …

Racial segregation in the United States | Wikipedia audio article



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Racial segregation in the United States

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“The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing.”
– Socrates

SUMMARY
=======
Racial segregation in the United States, as a general term, includes the segregation or separation of access to facilities, services, and opportunities such as housing, medical care, education, employment, and transportation along racial lines. The expression most often refers to the legally or socially enforced separation of African Americans from other races, but also applies to the general discrimination against people of color by white communities.

The term refers to the physical separation and provision of so-called “separate but equal” facilities, which were separate but rarely equal, as well as to other manifestations of racial discrimination, such as separation of roles within an institution: for example, in the United States Armed Forces before the 1950s, black units were typically separated from white units but were led by white officers. Signs were used to show non-whites where they could legally walk, talk, drink, rest, or eat. Segregated facilities extended from white only schools to white only graveyards.Legal segregation of schools was stopped in the U.S. by federal enforcement of a series of Supreme Court decisions after Brown v. Board of Education in 1954. All legally enforced public segregation (segregation de jure) was abolished by the Civil Rights Act of 1964. It passed after demonstrations during the Civil Rights Movement resulted in public opinion turning against legally-enforced segregation.
De facto segregation—segregation “in fact”, without sanction of law—persists in varying degrees to the present day. The contemporary racial segregation seen in the United States in residential neighborhoods has been shaped by public policies, mortgage discrimination, and redlining, among other factors. De facto segregation results from the geographical grouping of racial groups either as a result of economic factors or choice (white flight). Most often, this occurs in cities where the residents of the inner city are African Americans and the suburbs surrounding this inner core are often European American residents. Douglas Massey and Nancy A. Denton proposed the term hypersegregation in their 1989 study of “American Apartheid”, when whites created black ghettos during the first half of the 20th century in order to isolate growing urban black populations.

Our Lady of Guadalupe | Wikipedia audio article



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Our Lady of Guadalupe

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“The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing.”
– Socrates

SUMMARY
=======
Our Lady of Guadalupe (Spanish: Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe), also known as the Virgin of Guadalupe (Spanish: Virgen de Guadalupe), is a Catholic title of the Blessed Virgin Mary associated with a venerated image enshrined within the Minor Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe in Mexico City. The basilica is the most visited Catholic pilgrimage site in the world, and the world’s third most-visited sacred site. Pope Leo XIII granted the venerated image a Canonical Coronation on 12 October 1895.