Archive Tucson: Diego Navarrette (1 of 6)



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Archive Tucson is the oral history project of Special Collections at the University of Arizona Libraries. This interview is with Diego Navarrette Jr. and covers the following themes:

Early days of the South Park neighborhood and Millville. Childhood experiences, local businesses, food, pilon, and Latin masses at church.

Mansfeld junior high and exposure to Anglos. Long distance walking. Tucson Unified’s tracking of Mexican American students. Negotiating middle school peer group.

Move to Broadmoor Addition in 1951 and cultural changes from South Park.

Sports as a social leveler between economic classes.

Race relations in Tucson, a tent city in the South Park neighborhood, and Chinese markets.

High school at Salpointe, graduating in 1955.

Education and social mobility across four generations of Diego’s family. The terms “secren” and “vendido” and navigating between Mexican and Anglo American social spaces.

College in New Mexico and the University of Arizona. Earned teaching credentials in 1961 and moved to Safford, Arizona to teach for 5 years.

Scholarship to study linguistics at UCLA and teach English as a second language.

Launching an ESL program at Pueblo concurrently with the development of the school’s bilingual program. Ideological and methodological differences between the two programs.

Diego’s attempt to teach English but not force assimilation.

Experience teaching in Safford, Arizona. Negotiating social place in a rural town.

This interview is part 1 of 6 and was recorded at the base of Tumamoc Hill in Tucson, Arizona on May 2nd, 2017.

Ku Klux Klan of Montgomery, Alabama, 1956. Archive film 99214



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Anti-Civil Rights in Montgomery in Alabama the U.S.A. A Ku Klux Klan meeting is taking place and a leader is addressing a crowd (who remain unseen). He says that he wants no part of a mixed-race society and that he does not want a mulatto mongrel class of people.

San Francisco Tour: “Brooklyn Goes to San Francisco” 1956 Prelinger Archives



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“Brooklyn native Phil Foster tours San Francisco and comments on many places of interest.”

Reupload of a previously uploaded film with improved video & sound.

Originally a public domain film from the Library of Congress Prelinger Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied.
The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original).

Wikipedia license:

San Francisco, officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the leading financial and cultural center of Northern California and the San Francisco Bay Area.

The only consolidated city-county in California, San Francisco encompasses a land area of about 46.9 square miles (121 km2) on the northern end of the San Francisco Peninsula, giving it a density of about 17,620 people per square mile (6,803 people per km2). It is the most densely settled large city (population greater than 200,000) in the state of California and the second-most densely populated major city in the United States after New York City. San Francisco is the fourth most populous city in California, after Los Angeles, San Diego and San Jose, and the 14th most populous city in the United States—with a Census-estimated 2012 population of 825,863. The city is also the financial and cultural hub of the larger San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland metropolitan area, with a population of 8.4 million.

San Francisco (Spanish for “Saint Francis”) was founded on June 29, 1776, when colonists from Spain established a fort at the Golden Gate and a mission named for St. Francis of Assisi a few miles away. The California Gold Rush of 1849 brought rapid growth, making it the largest city on the West Coast at the time. Due to the growth of its population, San Francisco became a consolidated city-county in 1856. After three-quarters of the city was destroyed by the 1906 earthquake and fire, San Francisco was quickly rebuilt, hosting the Panama-Pacific International Exposition nine years later. During World War II, San Francisco was the port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the Pacific Theater….

Today, San Francisco is ranked 44th of the top tourist destinations in the world, and was the sixth most visited one in the United States in 2011. The city is renowned for its cool summers, fog, steep rolling hills, eclectic mix of architecture, and landmarks including the Golden Gate Bridge, cable cars, the former prison on Alcatraz Island, and its Chinatown district. It is also a primary banking and finance center…

…a Spanish exploration party, led by Don Gaspar de Portolà arrived on November 2, 1769, the first documented European visit to San Francisco Bay. Seven years later, on March 28, 1776, the Spanish established the Presidio of San Francisco, followed by a mission, Mission San Francisco de Asís (Mission Dolores).

Upon independence from Spain in 1821, the area became part of Mexico…

Commodore John D. Sloat claimed California for the United States on July 7, 1846, during the Mexican-American War, and Captain John B. Montgomery arrived to claim Yerba Buena two days later. Yerba Buena was renamed San Francisco on January 30 of the next year, and Mexico officially ceded the territory to the United States at the end of the war…

The California Gold Rush brought a flood of treasure seekers. With their sourdough bread in tow, prospectors accumulated in San Francisco over rival Benicia, raising the population from 1,000 in 1848 to 25,000 by December 1849…

Entrepreneurs sought to capitalize on the wealth generated by the Gold Rush. Early winners were the banking industry, with the founding of Wells Fargo in 1852 and the Bank of California in 1864…

The first cable cars carried San Franciscans up Clay Street in 1873. The city’s sea of Victorian houses began to take shape, and civic leaders campaigned for a spacious public park, resulting in plans for Golden Gate Park. San Franciscans built schools, churches, theaters, and all the hallmarks of civic life. The Presidio developed into the most important American military installation on the Pacific coast. By 1890, San Francisco’s population approached 300,000, making it the eighth largest city in the U.S. at the time…

At 5:12 am on April 18, 1906, a major earthquake struck San Francisco and northern California…

Waco Shootout | Eyewitness News 2-28-1993



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Archive video of ABC13’s news report of the standoff between the Branch Davidian cult and FBI agents, ATF, and law enforcement in Waco, Texas.

Eyewitness News ABC13 Houston 10pm 02-28-1993

1967: Mature women buying indian colored corn farmstand market. PALMDALE, CALIFORNIA



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Great Salt Lake & Salt Lake City, Utah (Desert Empire) ~ 1938 Denver & Rio Grande Western Railroad



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‘Railroad tour through the state of Utah, stopping off at many natural attractions and in Salt Lake City…’ Also covers Great Salt Lake, Ogden, and grain and sheep farming.

Reupload of a previously uploaded film with improved video & sound.

Originally a public domain film from the Library of Congress Prelinger Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied.
The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original).

Wikipedia license:

Salt Lake City, often shortened to Salt Lake or SLC, is the capital and the most populous city of the U.S. state of Utah. With an estimated population of 189,314 in 2012, the city lies in the core of the Salt Lake City metropolitan area, which has a total population of 1,175,905. Salt Lake City is further situated in a larger urban area known as the Wasatch Front, which has a population of 2,328,299. It is one of only two major urban areas in the Great Basin (the other being Reno, Nevada), and the largest in the Intermountain West.

The city was founded in 1847 by Brigham Young, Isaac Morley, George Washington Bradley and several other Mormon followers, who extensively irrigated and cultivated the arid valley. Due to its proximity to the Great Salt Lake, the city was originally named “Great Salt Lake City”—the word “great” was dropped from the official name in 1868 by the 17th Utah Territorial Legislature. Although Salt Lake City is still home to the headquarters of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), less than half the population of Salt Lake City proper are members of the LDS Church today.

Immigration of international LDS members, mining booms, and the construction of the first transcontinental railroad initially brought economic growth, and the city was nicknamed the Crossroads of the West. It was traversed by the Lincoln Highway, the first transcontinental highway, in 1913, and presently two major cross-country freeways, I-15 and I-80, intersect in the city. Salt Lake City has since developed a strong outdoor recreation tourist industry based primarily on skiing, and hosted the 2002 Winter Olympics. It is the industrial banking center of the United States…

The Denver & Rio Grande Western Railroad (reporting mark DRGW), often shortened to Rio Grande or D&RGW, formerly the Denver & Rio Grande Railroad, was a U.S. railroad company. The railroad started as a narrow gauge line running south from Denver, Colorado in 1870. It served mainly as a transcontinental bridge line between Denver, and Salt Lake City, Utah. The Rio Grande was also a major origin of coal and mineral traffic.

In 1988, the Rio Grande’s parent corporation, Rio Grande Industries, purchased Southern Pacific Transportation Company, and as the result of a merger, the larger Southern Pacific Railroad name was chosen for identity. Today, most former D&RGW main lines are owned and operated by the Union Pacific Railroad; several branch lines are now operated as heritage railways by various companies.

The Rio Grande was the epitome of mountain railroading, with a motto of Through the Rockies, not around them and later Main line through the Rockies, both referring to the Rocky Mountains. The D&RGW operated the highest mainline rail line in the United States, over the 10,240 feet (3,120 m) Tennessee Pass in Colorado, and the famed routes through the Moffat Tunnel and the Royal Gorge. At its height, around 1890, the D&RG had the largest operating narrow gauge railroad network in North America. Known for its independence, the D&RGW operated the last private intercity passenger train in the United States, the Rio Grande Zephyr.

At the end of 1970 it operated 1,903 miles (3,063 km) of road on 3,227 miles (5,193 km) of track; that year it carried 7733 ton-miles of revenue freight and 21 million passenger-miles…