Strom Thurmond | Wikipedia audio article

Strom Thurmond | Wikipedia audio article



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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article:
Strom Thurmond

00:03:20 1 Early life and education
00:05:06 2 Early career
00:07:18 2.1 World War II
00:08:14 2.2 Governor of South Carolina
00:09:38 2.3 Run for President
00:13:35 2.4 Early runs for Senate
00:15:07 3 Elected to the Senate and 1950s
00:19:22 3.1 iBrown v. Board of Education/i
00:20:31 4 1960s
00:22:23 4.1 Kennedy administration
00:28:14 4.2 Johnson administration
00:33:17 4.2.1 1964 presidential election and party switch
00:34:20 4.2.2 Supreme Court
00:38:00 4.2.3 1968 presidential election
00:40:58 4.2.4 1966 re-election campaign
00:41:43 5 1970s
00:46:31 5.1 Domestic policy
01:00:24 5.2 Foreign policy
01:06:23 5.3 Nixon resignation
01:08:40 5.4 Carter nominees
01:09:49 5.5 1978 re-election campaign
01:11:26 5.6 1980 presidential election
01:14:41 5.7 Post-1970 views regarding race
01:16:22 6 1980s
01:20:53 6.1 Domestic policy
01:29:50 6.2 Anti-crime and drug policies
01:34:08 6.3 Reagan nominees
01:38:13 6.4 Foreign policy
01:42:02 6.5 1984 re-election campaign
01:43:38 6.6 Antonin Scalia nomination
01:44:58 7 1990s and 2000s
01:48:18 7.1 1990 re-election campaign
01:48:59 7.2 Clarence Thomas nomination
01:50:18 7.3 Chairman of the Senate Armed Services Committee
01:53:12 7.4 1996 re-election campaign
01:54:05 7.5 Last term
01:57:44 8 Personal life
01:57:53 8.1 Marriages and children
02:00:26 8.2 First daughter
02:02:30 9 Death
02:03:10 10 Electoral history
02:03:20 11 Legacy
02:06:36 12 See also

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“The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing.”
– Socrates

SUMMARY
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James Strom Thurmond Sr. (December 5, 1902 – June 26, 2003) was an American politician who served for 48 years as a United States Senator from South Carolina. He ran for president in 1948 as the States Rights Democratic Party candidate, receiving 2.4% of the popular vote and 39 electoral votes. Thurmond represented South Carolina in the United States Senate from 1954 until 2003, at first as a Southern Democrat and, after 1964, as a Republican.
A magnet for controversy during his nearly half-century Senate career, Thurmond switched parties because of his support for the conservatism of the Republican presidential candidate Senator Barry Goldwater. In the months before switching, he had “been critical of the Democratic Administration for … enactment of the Civil Rights Law”, while Goldwater “boasted of his opposition to the Civil Rights Act, and made it part of his platform.” Thurmond left office as the only member of either chamber of Congress to reach the age of 100 while still in office, and as the oldest-serving and longest-serving senator in U.S. history (although he was later surpassed in the latter by Robert Byrd and Daniel Inouye). Thurmond holds the record as the longest-serving member of Congress to serve exclusively in the Senate. He is also the longest-serving Republican member of Congress in U.S. history. At 14 years, he was also the longest-serving Dean of the United States Senate in U.S. history.
In opposition to the Civil Rights Act of 1957, he conducted the longest speaking filibuster ever by a lone senator, at 24 hours and 18 minutes in length, nonstop. In the 1960s, he opposed the civil rights legislation of 1964 and 1965 to end segregation and enforce the constitutional rights of African-American citizens, including basic suffrage. Despite being a pro-segregation Dixiecrat, he insisted he was not a racist, but was opposed to excessive federal authority, which he attributed to Communist agitators.Starting in the 1970s, he moderated his position on race, but continued to defend his early segregationist campaigns on the basis of states’ rights in the context of Southern society at the time. He never fully renounced his earlier positions.Six months after Thurmond died at the age of 100 in 2003, his mixed-race, then 78-year-old daughter Essie Mae Washington-Williams (1925–2013) revealed he was her father. Her mother Carrie Butler (1909–1948) had been working as his family’s maid, and was either 15 or 16 years old when a 22-year-old Thurmond …

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